Smoking, drinking before bed decreases sleep efficiency
Researchers have found that nicotine and alcohol use within four hours of bedtime leads to a decrease in sleep efficiency.
Florida Atlantic University researchers had 785 African-Americans wear a sleep tracking device and keep a diary to record consumption of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine within four hours of bedtime for about six nights.
Those who had an alcoholic drink within four hours of bedtime had one per cent worse sleep efficiency than nights when no alcohol was consumed.
Evening nicotine use was associated with 1.74 per cent worse sleep efficiency while evening caffeine had no effect on sleep outcomes.